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The Pew Learning and Technology Program Newsletter
Vol. 4, No. 3
September 2002
Editor: Carolyn G. Jarmon

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An electronic newsletter of the Pew Learning and Technology Program (PLTP) highlighting ongoing examples of redesigned learning environments using technology and examining issues related to their development and implementation.

. . . sponsored by a grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Redesigning Learning Environments

* Improving Retention: Moving from a Wish Factor to a Documented Success

2. Pew Learning and Technology Program

* Round I Actual Savings Summary Available Online
* EDUCAUSE Pre-Conference Workshop
* Be Prepared When Implementing a Course Redesign

3. Pew Project Updates

Round I
* Virginia Tech: Moving Beyond Linear Algebra

Round II
* Carnegie Mellon University: Introduction to Statistical Reasoning
* University of Alabama: Intermediate Algebra
* University of Dayton: Introductory Psychology
* University of Idaho: Intermediate Algebra and Pre-Calculus
* University of Tennessee: Introductory Spanish

Round III

* Drexel University: Computer Programming
* Florida Gulf Coast University: Understanding the Visual and Performing Arts
* Iowa State University: Discrete Mathematics
* Northern Arizona University: College Algebra
* Ohio State University: Statistics
* Portland State University: Spanish
* Tallahassee Community College: English Composition
* The University of New Mexico: Introductory Psychology
* University of Southern Mississippi: World Literature

4. PLTP Calendar

5. Archives and Reposting

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1. Redesigning Learning Environments

* Improving Retention: Moving from a Wish Factor to a Documented Success


Institutions consistently report that they would like to increase overall retention by reducing the drop-failure-withdrawal (DFW) rates in large-enrollment, introductory courses. Students who succeed in these courses are more likely to stay at the institution and to develop confidence that they can succeed in college. In addition to the human loss when students drop out, it is costly to the institution to find new students to replace those who are not successful. Just about all of the institutions applying to the Pew Grant Program in Course Redesign believed that their DFW rates were too high and indicated that they hoped to reduce them.

Only one of the schools (the University of Central Florida), however, was able to document that they had a good basis to believe they could actually achieve the goal of improving retention. (UCF data collected in earlier redesigned courses showed a 7% increase in the retention rate in redesigned sections.) For others, improving retention was a sincere wish, but not something they had actually accomplished before. Improving retention can result in substantial savings both to students and to institutions, but with no track record to rely on, the other 29 projects could not project savings based on retention gains. (UCF was able to calculate the potential savings. By applying a 7% increased retention rate to 25 redesigned sections, one-course-section could be eliminated, amounting to an $8,239 cost savings. In addition, $19,825 in classroom space rental cost could be saved because of the reduced per-section rate for redesigned class sections.)

We now know that in each round of redesign projects, retention has been increased, and those increases can be calculated as part of the course savings.

Six of the ten Round I projects measured changes in drop-failure-withdrawal (DFW) rates; five showed improvement:

  • At Penn State, the DFW rate decreased from a rate of 12 percent in the traditional course to 9.8 percent in the redesigned course.
  • IUPUI reduced the DFW rate from 38.9 percent to 24.8 percent.
  • Rio Salado increased completion rates from 59 percent to 64.8 percent.
  • At the University of Southern Maine, a smaller percentage of students received failing grades, moving from 28 percent in traditional sections to 19 percent in the redesigned course.
  • At Virginia Tech, the percentage of students completing the course and achieving grades of D- or better improved from an average of 80.5 percent to an average of 87.25 percent.

Four of the ten projects in Round II have thus far shown improvement in DFW rates:

  • Cal Poly Pomona’s most enhanced outcome was the retention of students and the reduction in the number of students receiving D and F grades.
  • At Fairfield University, only 3 percent of the students in the first term decided to drop the course, compared with an average of close to 8 percent in previous years.
  • The University of Alabama’s success rate was 10 percent higher in the redesigned course.
  • At the University of Idaho, the percentage of students earning a D or failing was more than cut in half.

Four of the ten projects in Round III have also thus far shown improvement in DFW rates:

  • At Drexel, the DFW rate was reduced to 38 percent, compared with an average of 49 percent in the traditional course.
  • FGCU reduced the number of D and F grades from 45 percent in the traditional course to 21 percent in the redesigned course.
  • UNM reduced its failure rate from 30 percent to 20 percent and its DFW rate from 42 percent to 25 percent.
  • At OSU, a lower number of students in the pilot scored under 70 percent on common exams, thus reducing the percentage of students who need to retake the course.

Success in decreasing the DFW rates has been exciting for all at the institution. Faculty are energized because students are grateful for a better learning environment and are interested in taking more courses with the new design features. Administrators are delighted because fewer failures means that fewer new students are needed and fewer sections are needed to accommodate the students repeating classes. Students are pleased because they have met general education requirements and can now move on to other courses needed for graduation.

Retention is no longer a wish factor. Well-planned redesigns have not only reduced costs, but have also led to fewer unsuccessful outcomes, keeping students on track working toward their degrees.

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2. Pew Learning and Technology Program

* Round I Actual Savings Summary Available Online

A summary table of the actual savings achieved by the Round I projects is now available to compare with the projected savings. When the 10 institutions included in Round I submitted their final reports, they included an accounting of their actual costs for full implementation of the redesign. Projected savings for the 10 projects totaled $1,160.706; actual savings totaled $1,006,606. Case Studies in Redesign: The Results of Round I of the Pew Grant Program in Course Redesign, a monograph describing the learning gains and cost reductions achieved by the first 10 projects to be published this fall, will analyze the reasons behind the differences in projected and actual savings. All 10 projects reduced costs. Both tables (Round I Projected Savings and Round I Actual Savings) are posted at Projected and Actual Savings.

* EDUCAUSE Pre-Conference Workshop

On October 1, 2002, Carol Twigg and Carolyn Jarmon will offer a full-day seminar entitled “Improving Quality and Reducing Costs: Redesigning Campus Learning Environments” as part of the EDUCAUSE annual conference in Atlanta. This seminar will replicate the workshops that have successfully taught grant applicants from 30 institutions how to redesign large-enrollment, introductory courses. Through presentations, case studies, and group work, participants will learn the basic planning steps as well as how to adapt the redesign model to the needs of their institutions. Space is limited, and there is a separate registration fee for this workshop (11F). For more information, visit the EDUCAUSE 2002 Conference Web site at http://www.educause.edu/conference/e2002/seminars.asp.

* Be Prepared When Implementing a Course Redesign

Online resources for training of adjunct faculty, graduate TAs, and undergraduate learning assistants is another component of increased consistency in achieving learning outcomes. As multiple kinds of personnel are included in many redesigns, it is important to be sure that all understand their responsibilities and are prepared to work with students as appropriate. Since turnover among these groups can be high, having readily available resources for new personnel is key to ensuring that students receive the kinds of services intended in the redesign.

Several schools have implemented different kinds of online training aids. The most comprehensive among the 30 projects is a certification process at Ohio State University where TAs qualify for various kinds of teaching and student support responsibilities based on successfully completing training experiences. Many of the learning resources are available online, and TAs can work on them at their own convenience – just like the students in the redesigned statistics class.

Tallahassee Community College (TCC) is using online resources to be sure that new faculty are ready to work with the buffet of resources available to students and to use a common scoring rubric, key to consistency in evaluating essays in College Composition. These resources are also available to non-English Department faculty participating in the college’s writing-across-the-curriculum goal.

To learn more, contact Ohio State’s Dennis Pearl at pearl.1@osu.edu and TCC’s Sally Search at search@tcc.cc.fl.us.

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3. Pew Project Updates

Round I

* Virginia Tech: Moving Beyond Linear Algebra


Virginia Tech's third fully online math course, the second semester of Elementary Calculus with Trigonometry I, was launched in fall 2002 with an enrollment of over 600 students. Approximately 1000 additional students are expected to enroll in the same course in spring 2003. The course homepage can be found at http://www.emporium.vt.edu/math1016/index.html. The course is similar in spirit and organization to the redesigned Linear Algebra course, and the Math Emporium is used in much the same way. The developers, a team of Virginia Tech math faculty led by Professor Michael Williams, designed a system for the course’s first semester, which replaced a commercial package one year ago. The cost savings achieved from the redesign of these courses have been crucial in the Math Department's effort to maintain high quality at a time when budgets are under stress.

For more information, contact Ken Hannsgen at hannsgen@calvin.math.vt.edu.

Round II

* Carnegie Mellon University: Introduction to Statistical Reasoning

Carnegie Mellon's Smartlab is an intelligent tutoring system that uses a "scaffolding" approach to provide immediate feedback to students as they navigate the learning environment, keeping students on course to avoid wasting time on bad problem-solving strategies while allowing for exploratory, active learning. Fall 2002 semester marks the debut of the first fully web-based version of Smartlab. This new version will make it possible to track students' progress over multiple assignments throughout the semester and thus provide a richer and more tailored level of feedback. In addition, it will enable the use of Smartlab for homework assignments as well as in-class labs and will facilitate the deployment of the tutor to other institutions across the nation. Work this semester will concentrate on a) developing a dynamic scaffolding system for Smartlab that will reduce the scaffolding as the student's skill set increases, and b) constructing an authoring tool to make it easier for instructors to add new Smartlab problems to the repository. Finally, efforts are underway to deploy Smartlab in an introductory statistics course at Carnegie Mellon's neighboring university, the University of Pittsburgh in the spring 2003 semester.

For more information, contact Joel Smith at joelms@andrew.cmu.edu .

* University of Alabama: Intermediate Algebra

As the university enters the third year of implementation of the redesigned intermediate algebra course, faculty are continuing to modify instructional efforts based on input from ongoing assessment activities and to expand use of computer-based instruction to additional courses. In fall 2002, the Math Technology Learning Center (MTLC) will be used to teach all (376) Remedial Mathematics and all (972) Intermediate Algebra students. In addition, half the students (566) enrolled in Pre-Calculus Algebra are taught in the MTLC. Thus, the MTLC will be the site of instruction for a total of 1,914 students during the fall 2002 semester.

Faculty continue to look at ways to reduce the number of students each semester who do not become initially engaged in the course or who drop out along the way. All students are required to attend a 30-minute class session each week, but faculty have changed the focus of the sessions to provide more direct value for students. To further enhance student-instructor interaction, faculty use a semi-automated email system that allows instructors to maintain contact with students and to provide encouragement when needed.

For more information, contact Hank Lazer at hlazer@aalan.ua.edu.

* University of Dayton: Introductory Psychology

The Introductory Psychology redesign team is implementing changes that address a number of lessons learned from the 2001-2002 academic year. The fully distributed course delivered last year achieved the cost savings goals and several indicators (e.g., final grades) point toward superior learning outcomes versus the traditional course delivery. Experience also led to some important changes in the promotion of the course as well as the design of collaborative elements. Data analyzed on the effect of procrastination in the course indicated that, although there was no difference in the average level of procrastination in online versus traditional sections, procrastination hurt the online students more than the traditional students. This finding led to changes designed to reduce procrastination.

In response to departmental needs and other considerations, we have diversified from distributed delivery only to include Web-enhanced delivery. The department is also exploring a hybrid model. In addition, all of the non-proprietary course materials (e.g., demonstrations, simulations, and other materials and activities developed by the design team) have been made available to all instructors through a course portal.

For more information, contact Ken Graetz at Ken.Graetz@notes.udayton.edu.

* University of Idaho: Intermediate Algebra and Pre-Calculus

Believing that subtlety has no place in education, faculty have enriched students’ experiences this semester by providing detailed task outlines that provide very directed lists of things to do. These lists force students to first make a commitment to a plan and a time line and then, as they proceed through the week, see how close their efforts match the “promises” they made to themselves. A much higher percentage of the students became immediately engaged with the learning tools using this device over last semester. The task lists also serve to make direct connections between the individual homework problems and the specific on-line lectures. Last year, students were simply asked to view certain lectures and do certain homework problems each week and left to make the specific connections themselves. Some students initially felt lost and abandoned and required a lot of energy to get on task. Not so this semester. The challenge is to provide as much structure as some students need while allowing as much freedom as others require.

Given the budget shortfalls in Idaho, the faculty are extremely grateful to be teaching the 1500 students in Intermediate Algebra and Pre-Calculus courses using the Polya Math Learning Center. They are not at all sure how they would have been able to afford the traditional approach. Not only are the outcomes better using the redesigned approach but also the cost is lower.

For more information, contact Monte Boisin at boisen@uidaho.edu.

* University of Tennessee: Introductory Spanish

During summer 2002, 150+ A/V files were moved from an older host server to the university's new public-use streaming server, which resulted in some problems with the audio files. Other technological glitches have surfaced, some repetitive from past implementations (learner familiarity with troubleshooting their own computer problems) and some new (the audio files).

In fall 2002, the third phase of the redesign project is being implemented in 10 sections of 54 students taught by three lecturers and one faculty member with first semester graduate students supporting them and 3 sections of 25 students taught by two graduate students. The lecturers and their supporting graduate assistants report the workload of these large classes to be appropriate and manageable. The workload for the new course supervisor, however, has been heavy troubleshooting technological difficulties. It is too early to know the affects of the large size classes on student performance. In terms of cost savings, the increase in class sizes has meant that the department is teaching two classes for the price of one; saving the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences over $27,360 this fall.

For more information, contact Julie Little at jklittle@utk.edu.

Round III

* Drexel University: Computer Programming


During summer 2002, the team refined the use of software tools - particularly Labrador, a client-side WebCT supplement for retrieving submitted lab assignments, quizzes, and other student work - unpacking it, when needed, from several compression or archival formats; distributing it to the appropriate grader; submitting it for further processing; and extending the capabilities to grade electronically submitted assignments using pen-based tablets. With a newly developed technique for emulating "freehand" feedback on electronically submitted work, Labrador converts students’ program files into Portable Document Format (PDF) and graders then use a pen tablet to mark each assignment as if it were on paper. The latest release of WebCT allows return of PDF files to each student, facilitating the routine use of this type of feedback.

The team is preparing to develop multi-level modules by extending the redesign to include information studies majors in addition to the computer science and computer engineering majors currently served. This extension will use substantial material from the current modules plus new material to enhance the course for information science and other majors looking to cover the two-term sequence over three terms with additional explanatory material. The course will be delivered following the current course redesign, using online lectures, one hour of formal class meeting per week and two hours of active group learning in the dedicated computer laboratory.

The team also faced an organizational challenge. After a new Provost divided the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science into two departments and moved the new Computer Science Department to the College of Engineering this summer, the now divided course redesign team regrouped and is continuing the redesign project across departmental and college lines.

For more information, contact Nira Herrmann at NHerrmann@drexel.edu.

* Florida Gulf Coast University: Understanding the Visual and Performing Arts

In summer 2002, the project team revised the redesigned class based on feedback from the spring pilot, making two major changes. First, the buffet of options has been reduced. The plan had been to offer multiple activities for students to learn the material (including online materials, live lectures, taped lectures, and labs) and to guide students to these activities based on their learning styles. The team discovered that students did not need this extensive buffet of learning activities (in fact, no one attended the lectures or labs, or checked out the tapes), and yet students performed far better on the exams than students in the traditional classes. Second, in the pilot, the team did not count the practice tests and web boards as activities that receive individual points. Instead, these counted towards an overall class participation grade. As a result, the students did not take these experiences seriously. The team redistributed the points for the course so that each activity that students are asked to do counts towards the final grade.

FGCU is fully implementing the redesign in fall 2002 with 387 students in one section, working with one instructor, one course coordinator, and 8 preceptors. The preceptors are responsible for overseeing the four web board discussions (which students complete in Peer Learning Teams of 5 students each) and grading two longer papers. In addition, an increased number of scored essays will be fed into the Intelligent Essay Assessor program to increase inter-rater reliability.

For more information, contact Jim Wohlpart at wohlpart@fgcu.edu.

* Iowa State University: Discrete Mathematics

The web-based Discrete Mathematics course is currently being offered for the second time. Faculty have made a number of changes based on the experiences from the pilot last spring, and so far everything is running very smoothly. The project team has dropped the ALEKS tutorial program and has gotten most of the bugs out of the EDU testing program. The course now includes a lot of features from the original plan which faculty were not able to offer during the pilot: study groups, Excel projects, personal emails reminding students of upcoming deadlines, videotaped mini-lectures for each week. Attendance at the weekly meetings has improved now that they are held in the computer lab instead of a classroom. The team is very pleased with the status of the redesign project at this point and does not expect any major changes in the future.

For more information, contact Max Gunzberg at gunzberg@iastate.edu.

* Northern Arizona University: College Algebra

During the fall 2002 semester, NAU is offering two sections of college algebra in a web-enhanced format using the MyMathLab computer software. This is essentially a new pilot necessitated by disappointing student results as well as technical and logistical problems with the ALEKS software package found during the spring and summer 2002 pilots. The department remains committed to its course redesign plan and is confident that this semester’s results will meet program expectations. The department intends to move to full implementation of the web-enhanced format across all sections of college algebra in the spring 2003 semester.

For more information, contact Terry Crites at terry.crites@NAU.EDU.

* Ohio State University: Statistics

Since both student satisfaction and student learning appear to have been greater in the pilot course compared with the traditional format taught, all 800 students enrolled for autumn 2002 quarter will take part in the redesigned "buffet style" course. Major cost savings will accrue this term. New buffet choices are being added that allow students to replace some contact hours with out-of-class hands-on activities, applet activities, team writing projects, and problem solving activities. More TA-facilitated study sessions will replace inefficient office hours and help provide structure to these out-of-class activities. Students who are not successful early in the term will be given the opportunity to modify their contracts in the middle of the quarter. Optional workshops on successful study strategies will be offered by OSU’s Academic Learning Lab to help students improve their class performance. Finally, the tracking software used to follow the implementation of student contracts has been updated to provide more individualized responses.

For more information, contact Dennis Pearl at pearl.1@osu.edu.

* Portland State University: Spanish

Portland State completed its pilot during spring 2002. In 2002-2003 the redesign will be implemented for the entire year, covering three sequential introductory Spanish courses. The next stage of the redesign will allow students to choose between web-enhanced sections that meet for 4 hours a week and web-enhanced sections that meet 2.6 hours a week with electronic delivery of the activities that otherwise would have been performed in class. The initial pilot was of the latter type. Both types of sections produce cost savings for the department and the institution. Offering a choice of section type appears to respond better to student and instructor preferences. Student learning outcomes, student responses and instructor responses from the spring pilot are presently being analyzed. Instructor training efforts have been very successful. Student learning and satisfaction was generally satisfactory and in some cases improved despite some pedagogical and technical problems during the transition. In 2001-02 PSU offered 12 sections of redesigned Spanish; in fall, 2002, PSU will offer 16 sections and will be able to offer six sections in a space that could only accommodate four sections in the past.

For more information, contact Terry Rhodes at trhodes@psu.edu.

* Tallahassee Community College: English Composition

During fall 2002, nearly 60 sections of College Composition and more than 30 instructors are involved in the redesign. All on-campus sections are working within the following new parameters: a course web site with individual sectional access, pre-loaded with the redesigned course curriculum; individualized state-test diagnostics and routing into learning resources housed on the textbooks’ companion web sites and built into the sectional web sites; a buffet of common writing assignments for individual instructor and student selection that require the integration of reading with writing; an online training manual to assist instructors with the course redesign and the technological components; increased use of technological ancillaries and resources, including online tutoring and response to writing; a battery of reading and writing tests that are computer housed, scored, and recorded in the course web site; the utilization of two online library and information literacy ancillaries; and the establishment of communities of learners through the web site discussion board interactive software. The Writing Center Support Lab personnel also direct individual students into computer housed reading, writing and grammar resources on machines purchased with grant funding.

Before the term began, faculty redesign team members led two extensive training sessions and are serving as assigned mentors and resources for other instructors. The Project Team Leader writes weekly help bulletins to disseminate information, address problems that arise, and suggest solutions to those in need of assistance or advice. The team continues to develop and pilot new technological components: creating, training, and utilizing a pool of mid-draft essay responders from local specialists whose commentary is focused on a common scoring rubric, as well as outsourcing some of the essay response labor to SMARTHINKING, a national tutoring service, in order to increase the consistency of, access to, and speed of instructional assistance; piloting reading remediation software featuring CD-ROM-based diagnostics, instruction, accountability, and outcomes assessment; instigating the placement online of state test facsimiles to increase the accessibility of pre-course diagnostics in grammar and reading; and piloting the use of Academic.com’s body of online writing and study resources.

For more information, contact Sally Search at search@tcc.cc.fl.us .

* The University of New Mexico: Introductory Psychology

As of fall 2002, all sections of Introductory Psychology at UNM use the redesigned format. One very large section (n = 700) replaces two large sections (350 each); smaller evening and weekend, redesigned sections (mandated by the university) are also offered. In spring 2002 semester, faculty learned that students enrolled in a section where mastery quiz completion was mandatory received better course grades (63% C or better) than students in a comparable section where quizzes were available but optional (43% C or better). Now all students are required to complete mastery quizzes, for which they receive course credit.

In order to further enhance C-or-better performance, faculty have redesigned the studio component. Studios are 50-min meetings offered throughout the week at different times. In the two pilot semesters of redesign implementation, faculty found that students who performed below C could often be characterized by one or more of the following: 1) lacking learning skills, 2) lacking motivation, or 3) having other priorities. All students in current studios receive peer-led coaching designed to help them better memorize key terms and concepts.

To improve motivation and, perhaps affect prioritization decisions, students in half of the studios receive motivational interviewing (MI), a clinical technique used in the treatment of addictive behaviors. A performance standard of an average of 75% or lower on the first of five in-class exams (38% of the class during the pilot) was used to determine which students would be required to attend the mandatory weekly studios. (Studios, however, are not restricted; any student may attend). Effectiveness of MI will be determined by comparing course grade performance of students receiving MI to those receiving learning skills coaching alone.

For more information, contact Gordon Hodge at ghodge@unm.edu.

* University of Southern Mississippi: World Literature

The University of Southern Mississippi has fully implemented the redesign. This term approximately 500 students are enrolled in one hybrid online section. A team of four faculty members offers optional presentations. These are taped and placed online with instructors' notes, additional media resources, quizzes, exams, and essay assignments, which together constitute the required elements of the course. Between 60 and 90 students attend each live presentation. The majority come because they enjoy participating in class, bouncing their ideas off the instructors. Others come because they apparently prefer passively attending a live class to a passively watching a video. Most of the 500 students view the presentations online and contribute to an active bulletin board of threaded discussion topics introduced by the instructor each week.

Student comments from last spring's pilot led to the summer development of several new WebCT help files (screenshot lessons for common tasks and a video training session) to answer frequently asked questions. A web site devoted specifically to World Literature introduces prospective students to the course in advance of opening day. These additional training and information sources have made it much easier for first-time WebCT users to make the transition from the traditional classroom to the new technology-mediated learning environment.

For more information, contact Michael Salda at michael.salda@usm.edu.

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4. PLTP Calendar

A comprehensive calendar of meetings, symposia, publishing dates, and relevant deadlines for the Pew Learning and Technology Program community.

*** OCTOBER ***
Publication of Case Studies in Redesign: The Results of Round I of the Pew Grant Program in Course Redesign, a monograph describing the learning gains and cost reductions achieved by the first 10 projects.

October 1

EDUCAUSE Pre-Conference Workshop
“Improving Quality and Reducing Costs: Redesigning Campus Learning Environments”
Replicating the workshops that have successfully taught grant applicants from 30 institutions how to redesign large-enrollment, introductory courses.
Atlanta, GA

October 31

Due date for Round II final reports.

*** DECEMBER ***

December 6

Public Seminar: State-of-the-Art Learning Environments
Round III Faculty project leaders describe how to redesign large-enrollment courses to improve quality and reduce costs.
Atlanta, GA
For more information, see Workshop Information.

Pew Learning and Technology Program Newsletter
Vol 4, No. 4

*** FEBRUARY ***

February 24

Public Seminar: State-of-the-Art Learning Environments
Round III Faculty project leaders describe how to redesign large-enrollment courses to improve quality and reduce costs.
Dallas, TX
For more information, see Workshop Information.

*** MARCH ***

Pew Learning and Technology Program Newsletter

Vol 5, No. 1

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5. Archives and Reposting

The Pew Learning and Technology Program is an $8.8 million, four-year effort to place the national discussion about the impact that new technologies are having on the nation's campuses in the context of student learning and ways to achieve this learning cost effectively. The program has three areas of work: The Pew Grant Program in Course Redesign, the Pew Symposia in Learning and Technology, and the Pew Learning and Technology Newsletter. For more information, click here.

* Archives of The Pew Learning and Technology Program Newsletter are available.

* You are welcome to repost The Pew Learning and Technology Program Newsletter without charge. Material contained in The Pew Learning and Technology Newsletters may be reprinted with attribution for noncommercial purposes only.

Copyright 2002, The Pew Learning and Technology Program

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Pew Learning and Technology Newsletter ~ September 2002
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