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The Pew Learning and Technology Program Newsletter
Vol. 3, No.2
June 2001
Editor: Lowell Roberts

An electronic newsletter of the Pew Learning and Technology Program (PLTP) highlighting ongoing examples of redesigned learning environments using technology and examining issues related to their development and implementation.

. . . sponsored by a grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts.

1. Redesigning Learning Environments
* It's Not Just For Math and Science: University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign and University of Tennessee-Knoxville Tackle
Foreign Languages

2. Pew Learning and Technology Program
* Round I Interim Progress Reports Available
* Selection of Round III Grant Recipients
* Upcoming Pew Monograph: Innovations in Online Learning —
Moving Beyond No Significant Difference
* State-of-the-Art Learning Environments: Lessons Learned from
The Pew Grant Program in Course Redesign

3. Pew Project Updates
* Carnegie Mellon University: Introduction to Statistical
* University of Dayton: Introductory Psychology
* Fairfield University: General Biology
* Riverside Community College: Elementary Algebra
* University of Alabama: Intermediate Algebra
* University of Idaho: Pre-Calculus
* University of Iowa: Chemistry
* University of Massachusetts: Introductory Biology

4. Common Ground
* Open Source Course Management System
* And also from Mellon . . .
* Disaggregating the Curriculum
* Research in Distributed Education

5. PLTP Calendar

6. Archives and Reposting

1. Redesigning Learning Environments

* It's Not Just For Math and Science: University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign and University of Tennessee-Knoxville Tackle
Foreign Languages

Case studies from the Pew Program in Course Redesign featured in
previous newsletters have mostly focused on math and science
courses. However, the use of information technology to improve
student learning and reduce costs is not limited to these subject
areas. Students taking foreign language courses can also benefit
from those types of new learning environments.

A lack of resources often keeps many institutions from serving all
students who want to take a particular course, thus creating the
infamous ìbottleneck.î By using technology to reduce the amount of
time instructors spend on the course (and thus reducing the cost-
per-student), institutions are able to serve more students. Let's
look at how two institutions solved the "Spanish problem."

At the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), the
demand for Spanish courses far exceeds actual enrollment,
primarily because the university's ability to staff those courses
is limited by the lack of qualified instructors. With support from
the Sloan Foundation, UIUC has redesigned its Intermediate Spanish
course. A technology-enhanced format allowed UIUC to reduce the
number of weekly class meetings by half, from four to two. During
the class meetings, students work only on communication skills.
The rest of the course is done online.

The online work in vocabulary, grammar, and reading is presented
using Mallard, a Web-based tool that provides automatic grading
and feedback, maintains deadlines for completion of the material,
and automatically sends students' scores to the instructors and
course coordinators. Asynchronous conferencing is done through
WebBoard, in which students post twice-weekly messages in Spanish,
with one message a reply to other students' posts. Section size
has doubled from 19 students to approximately 38 students. Human-
resource use is more effective since faculty and teaching
assistants now use in-class time to focus on the kind of
instruction that requires human interaction and depend on
technology to accomplish those tasks that do not.

UIUC has measured learning outcomes in both the traditional and
redesigned formats. Quality has remained consistent on several
measures and improved on others. In comparing student scores for
pre- and post- use of a Spanish placement exam, UIUC founds that
students in the technology-enhanced format made much greater gains
on the exam than did students in the conventional format. The
university has been able to double enrollment in a high-demand
course, providing significantly greater access to Spanish-language
instruction and opening up a significant academic bottleneck, an
impossible accomplishment using conventional methods.

After studying the changes at UIUC, the University of Tennessee at
Knoxville (UTK) submitted a successful proposal to the second
round of the Pew Program in Course Redesign, modifying UIUC's
design to fit the needs of UTK's students. UTK is redesigning
Intermediate Spanish Transition, an introductory language course
in which more than 60 percent of approximately 3,900 entering
freshmen are placed based on scores on the university's
standardized Spanish placement test. The course has experienced
phenomenal growth in enrollment. In 1994, 378 students enrolled
for the course. In the 1999-2000 academic year, 1,539 students
registered for the course in the 57 sections offered. Because of
this increased demand, many students are unable to take the course
until their junior or senior years. Consequently, Intermediate
Spanish Transition experiences large enrollments and is always

In the original format, approximately 85 percent of in-class time
consisted of faculty explaining and students practicing grammar
and vocabulary instead of practicing the expressive skills of
speaking and writing. Also, in the traditional structure,
instructors spent an inordinate amount of time grading homework
exercises, quizzes, and examinations. Other problems posed by the
original course structure included an insufficient number of
sections to satisfy enrollment demand and a limited number of
qualified instructors to staff additional sections.

The redesigned course provides two types of learning opportunities
for students: analytical (online) and global (in class). One in-
class period per week has been eliminated and replaced by online
diagnostic homework exercises (grammar, vocabulary, and graded
workbook assignments). Immediate feedback on all graded
assignments is given via online assessments. While in class,
students can concentrate on listening and reading — important
skills to develop when learning a foreign language.

The redesign enhances quality by providing more active learning in
the classroom. Students use class time to interact with one
another. Rather than dealing with skill-based practice in class,
instructors have more time to emphasize active speaking skills and
cultural awareness. Any-time access to course materials and
immediate feedback on progress greatly assists students in self-
paced work and in their understanding of their deficiencies. In
addition, student peer teaching and collaborative learning in
assigned group activities (both online and in-class) are included.

Student performance in both traditional and redesigned sections is
being compared on midterm and final grades, pre- and post-test
scores on UTK's Spanish Placement Test and ABLE (the Adult Basic
Learning Examination). Students also take a learning-styles
inventory to determine if there are relationships between learning
styles and language outcomes in both course formats.

The redesign produces cost savings by offering one-third more
sections with significantly reduced labor costs. In the redesigned
format, the cost-per-student declines from $109 to $30. Labor
costs decrease as a result of graduate assistants assuming
teaching responsibility for more sections and the elimination of
one in-class meeting per week for each section. Cost savings
amount to approximately $106,191 annually, while serving 513
additional students.

The use of information technology is not just for math and science
courses. The changes made at both UIUC and UTK provide expanded
access to a large-enrollment, introductory language course and a
reduction in the cost-per-student. While their models are not
identical, both leverage information technology to reallocate
instructor time for important interaction with students, while
providing excellent opportunities to learn language basics online.

For more information about UIUC's Spanish redesign, contact Diane
Musumeci at For more information about the
University of Tennessee's redesign of Intermediate Spanish
Transition, visit its Web site at or contact
Susan Metros at

2. Pew Learning and Technology Program

* Round I Interim Progress Reports Available

Interim progress reports for the Round I projects are available on
the program Web site. Begin at
Fully Successful Projects and follow the
links for each institution. Topics covered in the reports are
student learning outcomes, labor-saving techniques, implementation
issues, development issues and dissemination. Among the tentative
but promising highlights regarding learning gains:

— Penn State reports that statistics students in the pilot-
redesigned format significantly outperformed the students in the
traditional format on a content knowledge test (66 percent correct
in the pilot class, 60 percent correct in the traditional class).

— The University of Central Florida reports that students in the
redesigned section of American Government showed a significantly
greater increase in knowledge than students in traditional
sections, suggesting that the learning modules used in the
redesign, which require a higher level of interaction between the
student and the material, may foster more thorough and meaningful
learning than standard lecture delivery.

— The University of Southern Maine reports that students in the
redesigned sections of introductory psychology did better on their
measure of important psychological concepts at the end of the
semester than did those in the traditionally taught sections.

— IUPUI reports that sociology students enrolled in redesigned
sections "linked" to English composition had a DFW rate of 23
percent compared with students enrolled in the traditional format
who had a DFW rate of 50 percent.

— The University at Buffalo's (UB) dissemination report
<University at Buffalo (SUNY)> is
particularly interesting. The team describes their experiences in
giving presentations around the country and responding to faculty
reactions to their success in significantly reducing costs while
improving quality. Many faculty say that costs are not something
that faculty members need to be concerned about and that only
administrators need to think about costs. As the UB team comments,
"Overcoming this disconnect can be a major contribution of the Pew
Course Redesign Program, as it is only when the same group is
thinking about both pedagogy and costs that ëout-of-the-box'
solutions can emerge."

* Selection of Round III Grant Recipients

On June 22, 2001, the Selection Committee will meet to decide who
will be the recipients in the final round of the Pew Grant Program
in Course Redesign. Forty institutions submitted Course Readiness
Criteria in February from which twenty were selected. Those twenty
institutions sent teams to a second workshop for applicants in San
Antonio, Texas on March 15 and 16. All twenty institutions
submitted full project proposals on June 1.

* Upcoming Pew Monograph: Innovations in Online Learning Moving
Beyond No Significant Difference

The latest monograph from the Pew Symposia in Learning and
Technology will be published in late summer 2001. Based on a
symposium held in December 2000, entitled "Innovations in Online
Learning: Moving Beyond the No Significant Difference," the
monograph will describe new academic and administrative approaches
that build on the strengths of the Internet in order to surpass
traditional modes of instruction. Symposium participants included
faculty members and administrators who have designed or are
designing alternatives to the instructor-led, semester-bound
"traditional" approach to putting courses online. The monograph
will be distributed in print and will be available on the program
Web site.

* State of the Art Learning Environments: Lessons Learned from the
Pew Grant Program in Course Redesign

Mark your calendars to learn about the results of the Round II
— December 3, 2001 in Orlando, Florida
— February 25, 2002 in Dallas, Texas

Faculty members from the Round II course redesign projects will
share their experiences and respond to questions about how they
are accomplishing their objectives and what challenges they have
met — and overcome! To learn more about the agenda, registration,
and logistical details, visit Workshop Information.

3. Pew Project Updates

* Carnegie Mellon University: Introduction to Statistical

Carnegie Mellon University has changed the name of its Cognitive
Tutor software project to SmartLab. During spring semester 2001,
SmartLab was used in all statistics labs requiring students to
solve relatively complex data-analysis problems. For each session
where SmartLab was used, professors were provided with summary
sheets detailing the names of students who attended the lab and
information on their performance. The latter included the number
of questions each student attempted to answer, where errors
occurred, and how many of the questions requiring TA approval of
the answers each student attempted. Complete log files for the
students' interactions with SmartLab were collected and used,
along with pre- and post-test questions, to assess student-
learning outcomes.

CMU's summer activities will include analysis of the pre- and
post-test data and log files; design of new homework assignments
supported by SmartLab for fall 2001, replacing old homework
assignments graded by hand (part of the basis of CMU's TA cost
reductions); expansion of SmartLab to cover the curriculum in the
second course in statistics; and extension of post-tests to
follow-on courses in statistics to test students' transfer of
learning to other courses.

In addition, CMU is improving the connection between the SmartLab
interfaces and the underlying intelligent-tutoring system software
so that the full power of the cognitive tutor emerges. The product
will be a fully implemented intelligent tutoring system intended
for the introductory statistics classes scheduled for fall 2001.
For more information on Carnegie Mellon University's redesign of
Introduction to Statistical Reasoning, contact Joel Smith at

* University of Dayton: Introductory Psychology
The University of Dayton's Introductory Psychology redesign team
is analyzing the data collected during the winter pilot. They also
are delivering the online course to a smaller group of students as
a "Summer Study at Home" course. During the summer course, they
will experiment with online assessment, with students taking all
four midterm examinations online from a distance. At the end of
the summer, the students will come to campus for a traditional,
comprehensive, final exam. All sections of Introductory Psychology
will be online during the fall 2001 semester in anticipation of
enrollment, which is expected to match or exceed that of previous
years due to a recent surge in the number of incoming students
registering for the course. Students are learning about the course
via Dayton's Virtual Orientation application, a Web-based
community where students meet future roommates and interact with
instructors during the summer before they arrive on campus.
Incoming students are able to access a demo version of the course
and informational materials. For more information about the
University of Dayton's redesigned Introductory Psychology, contact
Ken Graetz at

* Fairfield University: General Biology
Fairfield University will be implementing the full-scale version
of its redesign of General Biology in September. Fairfield's
experiment with wireless technology proved successful in spring
2001. For example, during a lecture on biodiversity/taxonomy, the
students connected to a Web page at the University of Arizona
called the Tree of Life <>.
Each student team was given a different organism, which they had
to place within an appropriate taxonomic/phylogenetic group.
Students presented their findings to the class, followed by group
discussion about general problems that arise when trying to
recreate evolutionary relationships.

Also during the spring semester, Fairfield began using lab
computers to connect to national and international Web sites
during comparative anatomy labs, reducing costs associated with
the purchase of large numbers of dissection organisms. The
technology is working better (i.e., faster) than expected, and the
project will attempt exercises and approaches that move beyond
those proposed in the Pew grant. For more information on Fairfield
University's redesign of General Biology, contact Malcolm Hill at

* Riverside Community College: Elementary Algebra

Mathematics faculty at Riverside Community College's three
campuses spent the fall 2000 semester preparing for the pilot of
the course redesign for Elementary Algebra, including establishing
lab facilities, lab activities, a common syllabus, and common
midterm and final examinations. During the fall semester one
course piloted the Web-based software ALEKS, a major redesign
component. A week prior to the beginning of the spring 2001
semester, ten faculty members attended a two-day training session
on the redesign and the ALEKS system.

During the spring 2001 semester, nine sections (two on the Norco
campus, three at Moreno Valley, and four at Riverside City)
piloted the redesign with approximately 300 students. The redesign
consists of three components: spotlight sessions (short targeted
lectures), lab activities, and ALEKS Web-based homework. The
semester began with surveys on attitudes and learning styles and a
pre-test for comparison of learning. Focus groups composed of
students and faculty helped determine what worked well and what
didn't. The increased amount of interaction between students and
faculty in the lab worked well, while the lack of integration of
the various learning materials seemed to be the biggest problem.
Faculty also used the reduction of paperwork and grading that
resulted from the redesign to spend more time with students. At
the close of the term, Riverside will evaluate whether the
redesign resulted in increased retention and/or completion rates.
Adjustments in the redesign, if needed, will be made during the
summer and faculty who are new to the redesign will be trained. In
the fall 2001 semester, all Elementary Algebra sections more
than 1,000 students — will be taught in the redesigned format.
For more information on Riverside Community College's redesign of
Elementary Algebra, contact Anthony Beebe at

* University of Alabama: Intermediate Algebra

Two introductory mathematics courses, Remedial Mathematics and
Intermediate Algebra, were taught in the Mathematics Technology
Learning Center (MTLC) during spring 2001. The MLTC's capacity was
expanded from 70 to 110 computers. The redesigned Intermediate
Algebra course enrolled 582 students, a decrease of almost 550
students from the fall 2000 semester. In spite of the smaller
enrollment, the success rate for the course was lower than in the
fall semester and comparable to that for previous semesters when
the course was taught in a traditional manner. Unlike the fall
2000 semester, where the majority of the students in the course
were taking college mathematics for the first time, the majority
of the students enrolled in the spring semester had taken a lower-
level college mathematics course (Remedial Mathematics) or were
unsuccessful in a previous attempt in Intermediate Mathematics.
Those students, particularly the repeat students, may require
different types and levels of learning supports.

A team from the Department of Mathematics and the University of
Alabama's Institute for Social Science Research is assessing the
mixed results experienced during the first year of course
redesign. This assessment includes evaluation of student
demographics, student learning styles, student and instructor
perceptions of instructional format, student study habits, and
student performance in Intermediate Algebra and subsequent
courses. A continued goal is to expand the use of computer-
assisted instruction to all precalculus mathematics courses and to
some courses at the calculus level and above. This fall the
Department of Mathematics will pilot use of the MTLC in three
sections of Precalculus Algebra, a large-enrollment course for
engineering, science, and business majors (2,100 students per
year) and one section of Finite Mathematics, a terminal course
that fulfills the University's core mathematics requirement. To
accommodate this expansion, a larger MTLC facility is being
constructed. Funded by a Congressional award from the U.S.
Department of Education, the facility will house 240 computers and
be ready at the beginning of the fall 2001 semester. For more
information about the University of Alabama's redesign of
Intermediate Algebra, contact Hank Lazer at

* University of Idaho: Pre-Calculus

Construction of the Polya Mathematics Center is proceeding
according to the schedule described in the March issue of this
newsletter. It will open for the fall 2001 semester with an
expected enrollment of about 1,400 students. This summer, data
gathered on traditional pre-calculus courses taught over the past
two years will be analyzed and the assessment instruments for use
in the Polya Math Center developed. Sixty-six students are taking
pre-calculus courses in an accelerated summer session. More
entering freshmen are expected to enroll in the short sessions
throughout the summer (the opportunity to prepare to enroll
directly in calculus classes by coming to the campus for three
weeks in the summer should prove attractive to many students,
especially those from rural communities). For more information on
the University of Idaho's redesign of pre-calculus courses,
contact Dene Kay Thomas at

* University of Iowa: Chemistry

The University of Iowa's redesign of chemistry coincides with the
institution's revision of its general chemistry pedagogy and
curriculum serving science, engineering, and pre-professional
majors. One component involves the redesign of
discussion/recitation sections by increasing student participation
and changing the role of the teaching assistant from instructor to
mentor. To achieve that goal, a general-use classroom is being
converted to a computer classroom that will feature laptops and
wireless connectivity to Internet-based tutorial and self-
assessment materials. The model will be piloted this summer and
will be fully implemented in the fall with about 750 students. A
second component involves improvements to the delivery of
laboratory-experiment content from a hard-copy manual to dynamic
Web pages using a database of relevant questions assigned to
individual students dynamically. A third component, Internet-based
skill-building exercises as graded homework, has been used with
modifications — in three successive semesters. For more
information about the University of Iowa's redesign of Chemistry,
contact Norbert Pienta at

* University of Massachusetts: Introductory Biology

In late May, preliminary reports on the assessment of the redesign
of Introductory Biology at the University of Massachusetts were
delivered to the Pew project team and to the individuals from the
UMass Office of Academic Planning and Assessment. In addition, the
redesigned course has become the subject of analysis of the
Research in Education And Learning (REAL) project, an NSF-funded
research effort based at Hampshire College. The REAL project team
is working with the faculty of several introductory science
courses, including Introductory Biology, to determine changes in
college students' scientific reasoning skills and views of the
nature of science. Using multiple measures, the REAL project is
comparing the scientific thinking and attitudes of students in the
Pew redesign course, which incorporated in-class problem-solving
exercises and a Web-based student preparation and quizzing system,
with students in traditional course formats.

During spring semester 2001, the redesign was applied to the
second semester course of the Introductory Biology sequence. This
provided additional opportunities to test faculty and student
attitudes on the use of Web-based preparation and quizzing. A
student survey indicated that the preparation page and on-line
quiz made students better prepared for class and enabled them to
learn more during class. The Web-based materials also met the
goals of delivering additional course content and serving as a
useful resource for student exam preparation. For more information
on the University of Massachusetts' redesign of Introductory
Biology, contact Elizabeth Connor at

4. Common Ground

Reporting on initiatives that share the goals and objectives of
the Pew Learning and Technology Program.

* Open Source Course Management System

Apparently frustrated with the cost and inflexibility of
proprietary course-management systems, a consortium of
universities is developing a free, open source (code)
instructional management system. The Open Knowledge
Initiative (OKI) — — is led by
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University and
funded by a $2 million grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Other partners include Dartmouth College, North Carolina State
University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of
Wisconsin. Modules currently in development include a testing
program, an online grade book, and an electronic discussion forum.
OKI will publish standards and specifications that will permit
others to create compatible tools and modules. Since the software
is open source, anyone will be able to "play" with the computer
code, provided such work also is available freely.

* And also from Mellon. . .

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has announced its intention to
build ArtSTOR, a comprehensive digital library of art and
architecture for teaching and research. Neil L. Rudenstine,
president of Harvard University, will become chairman of ArtSTOR
upon his retirement from Harvard in July. ArtSTOR will seek
nonexclusive, royalty-free licenses to create an archive of
hundreds of thousands of digitized images. Early focus will be on
materials for large, popular art history courses, such as African
and Islamic art. Distinguishing ArtSTOR from existing digital art
collections will be its size and systematic, worldwide
accessibility. This is not Mellon's first foray into large-scale
scholarly storage. The foundation provided funds for JSTOR, a
searchable database of out-of-print journals —

* Disaggregating the Curriculum

Robert Heterick, former president of EDUCOM, frequently speaks of
the potential for online education to "disaggregate" courses,
breaking them down so that students may take only the components
they need instead of sitting through repetitions of what they
already know. Heterick's vision has been largely unrealized,
except in office training where companies like Bit Learning teach specific skills by breaking
up courses into lesson units as small as two or three minutes.
Now, the Department of Agronomy and Horticulture of the University
of Nebraska at Lincoln offers crop technology one lesson at a time The mini-lessons are actually
exercises from a variety of courses that focus on understanding
concepts. The lessons are available to anyone, but only registered
students can access the quizzes.

* Research in Distributed Education

Greenberg, E., C. Vojir and F. Whitney.
MAPP (Mountain and Plains Partnership) Online Voices.

MAPP is a partnership between institutions and agencies dedicated
to increasing the number of primary health care providers, such as
nurse practitioners, certified nurse-midwives, and physician
assistants, in the under-served rural and urban areas of Colorado,
Wyoming, and the bordering states. It utilizes various
telecommunications technologies to deliver curricula to self-
directed, working-adult students who remain in their local
communities for most of their education programs.
— Most MAPP students would not have returned to school had
courses not been available on the Internet.
— Students most liked convenience and flexibility of the courses
and least liked poor communication with the schools and lack of
interaction with other students.
— Students improved their computer skills and transferred that to
their clinical work.
— Taking online courses had more positive than negative effects
on family and friends.
— Students reported they studied and learned differently online,
noting increased self-motivation, self-directedness and self-
— Students said they received excellent support from MAPP staff
but only adequate support from home institutions.
— Students were becoming internally directed life-long learners,
thinking in more complex ways and more capable of applying
learning in practice and community.

The complete study is available at

Dziuban, C. and P. Moskal.
Research Initiative for Teaching Effectiveness (RITE).

RITE is an ongoing analysis of the impact of distributed learning
on students, faculty, and academic environment at the University
of Central Florida. The study, which examines Web-based, mixed-
mode, Web-enhanced, and traditional courses, analyzes success and
withdrawal factors, student and faculty appraisals of their
experiences, and teaching and learning strategies; assesses the
demographics of students and faculty in various modes and the
relationship of modalities and cognitive styles; develops models
for predicting success in Web-based courses; and supports faculty
practitioner research. Among the findings to date:
— Mixed-mode courses with both face-to-face and Web components
have higher success rates and comparable or lower withdrawal rates
than those that are fully online or face-to-face.
— Women evidence higher success rates in online courses than men.
— Students who self-select fully online courses often have a
dependent cognitive style.
— Faculty report increased and higher-quality interaction among
students in Web courses compared to face-to-face courses.
— Instructors who interact more with students are more satisfied
with their teaching experiences.

The ongoing RITE study is available at

5. PLTP Calendar

A comprehensive calendar of meetings, symposia, publishing dates
and relevant deadlines for the Pew Learning and Technology Program

*** JULY ***

July 1
Round III of the Pew Program in Course Redesign begins.

Interim progress reports from Round II grant recipients due.


Pew Learning and Technology Program Newsletter Vol. 3, No. 3

*** October ***

October 9-10
Pew Symposium in Learning and Technology
"Small Colleges in the Information Age: Challenges and Opportunities"
Charleston, SC
Co-sponsored by the Council of Independent Colleges

October 29
Pew Learning and Technology Advisory Board Meeting
Santa Fe, NM

*** DECEMBER ***

December 3
State-of-the-Art Learning Environments Seminar
An opportunity to learn from the innovative faculty engaged in
course redesign and funded in Round II of the Pew Program in
Course Redesign. For more information, consult
Workshop Information
Orlando, FL
Co-sponsored by the Virginia Tech Executive Forum on Information

December 31
Final reports for Round I grant recipients due.

6. Archives and Reposting

The Pew Learning and Technology Program is an $8.8 million, four-
year effort to place the national discussion about the impact that
new technologies are having on the nation's campuses in the
context of student learning and ways to achieve this learning cost
effectively. The program has three areas of work: The Pew Grant
Program in Course Redesign, the Pew Symposia in Learning and
Technology, and the Pew Learning and Technology Newsletter. For
more information, click here.

* Archives of The Pew Learning and Technology Program Newsletter
are available.

* You are welcome to repost The Pew Learning and Technology
Program Newsletter on your intranet without charge. Material
contained in The Pew Learning and Technology Newsletters may be
reprinted with attribution for noncommercial purposes only.

Copyright 2001, The Pew Learning and Technology Program

Pew Learning and Technology Newsletter ~ June 2001 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~